Alzheimer’s disease is a major form of dementia and is believed to comprise half of all dementia. It has progressive effects on the individual’s cognition in two or more aspects, memory and client’s ability to comprehend and utilize language, calculation, spatial perception, judgement, and abstraction.
The etiology of this condition has not yet been discovered but several studies show that the accumulation of abnormal protein and changes in neurotransmitters contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Other theories that are believed to be related to this said condition are genetic predisposition with 50% risk for children with parents diagnosed with Alzheimer’s; presence of high aluminium deposits in the brain; dormant viruses; weak immune system; and other factors like head trauma, decreased cerebral circulation, and some hormonal changes. In addition, it is observed to occur more likely to people with increasing age (over 65 years old).
Nursing considerations for this condition may include:
- Ensuring safety through preventive measures avoiding injury, fall, and trauma
- Provision of assistance to client in doing their activities of daily living such as grooming, personal and self- care
- Frequent orientation to place, time, date, and other significant matters
- Education of care giver and significant individuals of client’s condition and in the care of the client